47 Review Questions for States of Consciousness

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Multiple Choice Questions

1The body’s biological clock is located in the ________.

  1. hippocampus
  2. thalamus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. pituitary gland

2________ occurs when there is a chronic deficiency in sleep.

  1. jet lag
  2. rotating shift work
  3. circadian rhythm
  4. sleep debt

3________ cycles occur roughly once every 24 hours.

  1. biological
  2. circadian
  3. rotating
  4. conscious

4________ is one way in which people can help reset their biological clocks.

  1. Light-dark exposure
  2. coffee consumption
  3. alcohol consumption
  4. napping

5Growth hormone is secreted by the ________ while we sleep.

  1. pineal gland
  2. thyroid
  3. pituitary gland
  4. pancreas

6The ________ plays a role in controlling slow-wave sleep.

  1. hypothalamus
  2. thalamus
  3. pons
  4. both a and b

7________ is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that plays a role in regulating biological rhythms and immune function.

  1. growth hormone
  2. melatonin
  3. LH
  4. FSH

8________ appears to be especially important for enhanced performance on recently learned tasks.

  1. melatonin
  2. slow-wave sleep
  3. sleep deprivation
  4. growth hormone

9________ is(are) described as slow-wave sleep.

  1. stage 1
  2. stage 2
  3. stage 3 and stage 4
  4. REM sleep

10Sleep spindles and K-complexes are most often associated with ________ sleep.

  1. stage 1
  2. stage 2
  3. stage 3 and stage 4
  4. REM

11The ________ content of a dream refers to the true meaning of the dream.

  1. latent
  2. manifest
  3. collective unconscious
  4. important

12________ is loss of muscle tone or control that is often associated with narcolepsy.

  1. RBD
  2. CPAP
  3. cataplexy
  4. insomnia

13An individual may suffer from ________ if there is a disruption in the brain signals that are sent to the muscles that regulate breathing.

  1. central sleep apnea
  2. obstructive sleep apnea
  3. narcolepsy
  4. SIDS

14________ is another word for sleepwalking.

  1. insomnia
  2. somnambulism
  3. cataplexy
  4. narcolepsy

15________ occurs when a drug user requires more and more of a given drug in order to experience the same effects of the drug.

  1. withdrawal
  2. psychological dependence
  3. tolerance
  4. reuptake

16Cocaine blocks the reuptake of ________.

  1. GABA
  2. glutamate
  3. acetylcholine
  4. dopamine

17________ refers to drug craving.

  1. psychological dependence
  2. antagonism
  3. agonism
  4. physical dependence

18LSD affects ________ neurotransmission.

  1. dopamine
  2. serotonin
  3. acetylcholine
  4. norepinephrine

19________ is most effective in individuals that are very open to the power of suggestion.

  1. hypnosis
  2. meditation
  3. mindful awareness
  4. cognitive therapy

20________ has its roots in religious practice.

  1. hypnosis
  2. meditation
  3. cognitive therapy
  4. behavioural therapy

21Meditation may be helpful in ________.

  1. pain management
  2. stress control
  3. treating the flu
  4. both a and b

22Research suggests that cognitive processes, such as learning, may be affected by ________.

  1. hypnosis
  2. meditation
  3. mindful awareness
  4. progressive relaxation

Critical Thinking Questions

23Healthcare professionals often work rotating shifts. Why is this problematic? What can be done to deal with potential problems?
24Generally, humans are considered diurnal which means we are awake during the day and asleep during the night. Many rodents, on the other hand, are nocturnal. Why do you think different animals have such different sleep-wake cycles?
25If theories that assert sleep is necessary for restoration and recovery from daily energetic demands are correct, what do you predict about the relationship that would exist between individuals’ total sleep duration and their level of activity?
26How could researchers determine if given areas of the brain are involved in the regulation of sleep?
27Differentiate the evolutionary theories of sleep and make a case for the one with the most compelling evidence.
28Freud believed that dreams provide important insight into the unconscious mind. He maintained that a dream’s manifest content could provide clues into an individual’s unconscious. What potential criticisms exist for this particular perspective?
29Some people claim that sleepwalking and talking in your sleep involve individuals acting out their dreams. Why is this particular explanation unlikely?
30One of the recommendations that therapists will make to people who suffer from insomnia is to spend less waking time in bed. Why do you think spending waking time in bed might interfere with the ability to fall asleep later?
31How is narcolepsy with cataplexy similar to and different from REM sleep?
32The negative health consequences of both alcohol and tobacco products are well-documented. A drug like marijuana, on the other hand, is generally considered to be as safe, if not safer than these legal drugs. Why do you think marijuana use continues to be illegal in many parts of the United States?
33Why are programs designed to educate people about the dangers of using tobacco products just as important as developing tobacco cessation programs?
34What advantages exist for researching the potential health benefits of hypnosis?
35What types of studies would be most convincing regarding the effectiveness of meditation in the treatment for some type of physical or mental disorder?

Personal Application Questions


36We experience shifts in our circadian clocks in the fall and spring of each year with time changes associated with daylight saving time. Is springing ahead or falling back easier for you to adjust to, and why do you think that is?
37What do you do to adjust to the differences in your daily schedule throughout the week? Are you running a sleep debt when daylight saving time begins or ends?
38Have you (or someone you know) ever experienced significant periods of sleep deprivation because of simple insomnia, high levels of stress, or as a side effect from a medication? What were the consequences of missing out on sleep?
39Researchers believe that one important function of sleep is to facilitate learning and memory. How does knowing this help you in your college studies? What changes could you make to your study and sleep habits to maximize your mastery of the material covered in class?
40What factors might contribute to your own experiences with insomnia?
41Many people experiment with some sort of psychoactive substance at some point in their lives. Why do you think people are motivated to use substances that alter consciousness?
42Under what circumstances would you be willing to consider hypnosis and/or meditation as a treatment option? What kind of information would you need before you made a decision to use these techniques?



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Introduction to Psychology & Neuroscience (2nd Edition) Copyright © 2020 by Edited by Leanne Stevens & Jennifer Stamp is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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