66 Review Questions for Learning

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Multiple-Choice Questions

1Which of the following is an example of a reflex that occurs at some point in the development of a human being?

  1. child riding a bike
  2. teen socializing
  3. infant sucking on a nipple
  4. toddler walking

2Learning is best defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour that ________.

  1. is innate
  2. occurs as a result of experience
  3. is found only in humans
  4. occurs by observing others

3Two forms of associative learning are ________ and ________.

  1. classical conditioning; operant conditioning
  2. classical conditioning; Pavlovian conditioning
  3. operant conditioning; observational learning
  4. operant conditioning; learning conditioning

4In ________ the stimulus or experience occurs before the behaviour and then gets paired with the behaviour.

  1. associative learning
  2. observational learning
  3. operant conditioning
  4. classical conditioning

5A stimulus that does not initially elicit a response in an organism is a(n) ________.

  1. unconditioned stimulus
  2. neutral stimulus
  3. conditioned stimulus
  4. unconditioned response

6In Watson and Rayner’s experiments, Little Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat, and then he began to be afraid of other furry white objects. This demonstrates ________.

  1. higher order conditioning
  2. acquisition
  3. stimulus discrimination
  4. stimulus generalization

7Extinction occurs when ________.

  1. the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
  2. the unconditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with a conditioned stimulus
  3. the neutral stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
  4. the neutral stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with a conditioned stimulus

8In Pavlov’s work with dogs, the psychic secretions were ________.

  1. unconditioned responses
  2. conditioned responses
  3. unconditioned stimuli
  4. conditioned stimuli

9________ is when you take away a pleasant stimulus to stop a behaviour.

  1. positive reinforcement
  2. negative reinforcement
  3. positive punishment
  4. negative punishment

10Which of the following is not an example of a primary reinforcer?

  1. food
  2. money
  3. water
  4. sex

11Rewarding successive approximations toward a target behaviour is ________.

  1. shaping
  2. extinction
  3. positive reinforcement
  4. negative reinforcement

12Slot machines reward gamblers with money according to which reinforcement schedule?

  1. fixed ratio
  2. variable ratio
  3. fixed interval
  4. variable interval

13The person who performs a behaviour that serves as an example is called a ________.

  1. teacher
  2. model
  3. instructor
  4. coach

14In Bandura’s Bobo doll study, when the children who watched the aggressive model were placed in a room with the doll and other toys, they ________.

  1. ignored the doll
  2. played nicely with the doll
  3. played with tinker toys
  4. kicked and threw the doll

15Which is the correct order of steps in the modelling process?

  1. attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
  2. motivation, attention, reproduction, retention
  3. attention, motivation, retention, reproduction
  4. motivation, attention, retention, reproduction

16Who proposed observational learning?

  1. Ivan Pavlov
  2. John Watson
  3. Albert Bandura
  4. B. F. Skinner

Critical Thinking Questions

17Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning. How are they alike? How do they differ?
18What is the difference between a reflex and a learned behaviour?
19If the sound of your toaster popping up toast causes your mouth to water, what are the US, CS, and CR?
20Explain how the processes of stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination are considered opposites.
21How does a neutral stimulus become a conditioned stimulus?
22What is a Skinner box and what is its purpose?
23What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?
24What is shaping and how would you use shaping to teach a dog to roll over?
25What is the effect of prosocial modelling and antisocial modelling?
26Etienne is 17 years old. Both of Etienne’s parents drink alcohol every night. They tell Etienne that drinking is bad and that Etienne shouldn’t do it. Etienne goes to a party where beer is being served. What do you think Etienne will do? Why?

Personal Application Questions

27What is your personal definition of learning? How do your ideas about learning compare with the definition of learning presented in this text?
28What kinds of things have you learned through the process of classical conditioning? Operant conditioning? Observational learning? How did you learn them?
29Can you think of an example in your life of how classical conditioning has produced a positive emotional response, such as happiness or excitement? How about a negative emotional response, such as fear, anxiety, or anger?
30Explain the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment, and provide several examples of each based on your own experiences.
31Think of a behaviour that you have that you would like to change. How could you use behaviour modification, specifically positive reinforcement, to change your behaviour? What is your positive reinforcer?
32What is something you have learned how to do after watching someone else?


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Introduction to Psychology & Neuroscience (2nd Edition) Copyright © 2020 by Edited by Leanne Stevens & Jennifer Stamp is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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