94 Review Questions for Emotion and Motivation

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Multiple Choice Questions

1Need for ________ refers to maintaining positive relationships with others.

  1. achievement
  2. affiliation
  3. intimacy
  4. power

2________ proposed the hierarchy of needs.

  1. William James
  2. David McClelland
  3. Abraham Maslow
  4. Albert Bandura

3________ is an individual’s belief in their capability to complete some task.

  1. physiological needs
  2. self-esteem
  3. self-actualization
  4. self-efficacy

4Riley mows the yard of their elderly neighbor each week for $20. What type of motivation is this?

  1. extrinsic
  2. intrinsic
  3. drive
  4. biological

5________ is a chemical messenger secreted by fat cells that acts as an appetite suppressant.

  1. orexin
  2. angiotensin
  3. leptin
  4. ghrelin

6________ is characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by attempts to compensate for the excessive amount of food that was consumed.

  1. Prader-Willi syndrome
  2. morbid obesity
  3. anorexia nervosa
  4. bulimia nervosa
7Animal research suggests that in male rats the ________ is critical for the ability to engage in sexual behaviour, but not for the motivation to do so.
  1. nucleus accumbens
  2. amygdala
  3. medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus
  4. hippocampus

8During the ________ phase of the sexual response cycle, individuals experience rhythmic contractions of the pelvis that are accompanied by uterine contractions in those with vaginas and ejaculation in those with penises.

  1. excitement
  2. plateau
  3. orgasm
  4. resolution

9Which of the following findings was not a result of the Kinsey study?

  1. Sexual desire and sexual ability can be separate functions.
  2. Females enjoy sex as much as males.
  3. Homosexual behaviour is fairly common.
  4. Masturbation has no adverse consequences.

10If someone is uncomfortable identifying with the gender normally associated with their biological sex, then they could be classified as experiencing ________.

  1. homosexuality
  2. bisexuality
  3. asexuality
  4. gender dysphoria

11Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder have been shown to have reduced volumes of the ________.

  1. amygdala
  2. hippocampus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. thalamus

12According to the ________ theory of emotion, emotional experiences arise from physiological arousal.

  1. James-Lange
  2. Cannon-Bard
  3. Schachter-Singer two-factor
  4. Darwinian

13Which of the following is not one of the seven universal emotions described in this chapter?

  1. contempt
  2. disgust
  3. melancholy
  4. anger

14Which of the following theories of emotion would suggest that polygraphs should be quite accurate at differentiating one emotion from another?

  1. Cannon-Bard theory
  2. James-Lange theory
  3. Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
  4. Darwinian theory

Critical Thinking Questions

15How might someone espousing an arousal theory of motivation explain visiting an amusement park?

16Schools often use concrete rewards to increase adaptive behaviours. How might this be a disadvantage for students intrinsically motivated to learn? What are educational implications of the potential for concrete rewards to diminish intrinsic motivation for a given task?

17As indicated in this section, Caucasian women from industrialized, Western cultures tend to be at the highest risk for eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Why might this be?

18While much research has been conducted on how an individual develops a given sexual orientation, many people question the validity of this research citing that the participants used may not be representative. Why do you think this might be a legitimate concern?

19There is no reliable scientific evidence that gay conversion therapy actually works. What kinds of evidence would you need to see in order to be convinced by someone arguing that she had successfully converted her sexual orientation?

20Imagine you find a venomous snake crawling up your leg just after taking a drug that prevented sympathetic nervous system activation. What would the James-Lange theory predict about your experience?

21Why can we not make causal claims regarding the relationship between the volume of the hippocampus and PTSD?

Personal Application Questions

22Can you think of recent examples of how Maslow’s hierarchy of needs might have affected your behaviour in some way?

23Think about popular television programs on the air right now. What do the people in these programs look like?  What kinds of messages do you think the media is sending about the people in our society?

24Think about times in your life when you have been absolutely elated (e.g., perhaps your school’s basketball team just won a closely contested ballgame for the national championship) and very fearful (e.g., you are about to give a speech in your public speaking class to a roomful of 100 strangers). How would you describe how your arousal manifested itself physically? Were there marked differences in physiological arousal associated with each emotional state?


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Introduction to Psychology & Neuroscience (2nd Edition) Copyright © 2020 by Edited by Leanne Stevens & Jennifer Stamp is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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