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Multiple Choice Questions
1. In the harmful dysfunction definition of psychological disorders, dysfunction involves ________.
- the inability of an psychological mechanism to perform its function
- the breakdown of social order in one’s community
- communication problems in one’s immediate family
- all the above
2. Patterns of inner experience and behaviour are thought to reflect the presence of a psychological disorder if they ________.
- are highly atypical
- lead to significant distress and impairment in one’s life
- embarrass one’s friends and/or family
- violate the norms of one’s culture
3. The letters in the abbreviation DSM-5 stand for ________.
- Diseases and Statistics Manual of Medicine
- Diagnosable Standards Manual of Mental Disorders
- Diseases and Symptoms Manual of Mental Disorders
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
4. A study based on over 9,000 U. S. residents found that the most prevalent disorder was ________.
- major depressive disorder
- social anxiety disorder
- obsessive-compulsive disorder
- specific phobia
5. The diathesis-stress model presumes that psychopathology results from ________.
- vulnerability and adverse experiences
- biochemical factors
- chemical imbalances and structural abnormalities in the brain
- adverse childhood experiences
6. Dr. Anastasia believes that major depressive disorder is caused by an over-secretion of cortisol. Dr. Anastasia’s view on the cause of major depressive disorder reflects a ________ perspective.
7. In which of the following anxiety disorders is the person in a continuous state of excessive, pointless worry and apprehension?
- panic disorder
- generalized anxiety disorder
- social anxiety disorder
8. Which of the following would constitute a safety behaviour?
- encountering a phobic stimulus in the company of other people
- avoiding a field where snakes are likely to be present
- avoiding eye contact
- worrying as a distraction from painful memories
9. Which of the following best illustrates a compulsion?
- mentally counting backward from 1,000
- persistent fear of germs
- thoughts of harming a neighbour
- falsely believing that a spouse has been cheating
10. Research indicates that the symptoms of OCD ________.
- are similar to the symptoms of panic disorder
- are triggered by low levels of stress hormones
- are related to hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex
- are reduced if people are asked to view photos of stimuli that trigger the symptoms
11. Symptoms of PTSD include all of the following except ________.
- intrusive thoughts or memories of a traumatic event
- avoidance of things that remind one of a traumatic event
- physical complaints that cannot be explained medically
12. Which of the following elevates the risk for developing PTSD?
- severity of the trauma
- frequency of the trauma
- high levels of intelligence
- social support
13. Common symptoms of major depressive disorder include all of the following except ________.
- periods of extreme elation and euphoria
- difficulty concentrating and making decisions
- loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities
- psychomotor agitation and retardation
14. Clifford falsely believes that the police have planted secret cameras in his home to monitor their every movement. Clifford’s belief is an example of ________.
- a delusion
- a hallucination
- a negative symptom
15. A study of adoptees whose biological mothers had schizophrenia found that the adoptees were most likely to develop schizophrenia ________.
- if their childhood friends later developed schizophrenia
- if they abused drugs during adolescence
- if they were raised in a disturbed adoptive home environment
- regardless of whether they were raised in a healthy or disturbed home environment
16. Dissociative amnesia involves ________.
- memory loss following head trauma
- memory loss following stress
- feeling detached from the self
- feeling detached from the world
17. Dissociative identity disorder mainly involves ________.
- different personalities
18. Which of the following is not a primary characteristic of ADHD?
- short attention span
- difficulty concentrating and distractibility
- restricted and fixated interest
- excessive fidgeting and squirming
19. One of the primary characteristics of autism spectrum disorder is ________.
- difficulty relating to others
- short attention span
- intense and inappropriate interest in others
20. People with borderline personality disorder often ________.
- try to be the centre of attention
- are shy and withdrawn
- are impulsive and unpredictable
- tend to accomplish goals through cruelty
21. Antisocial personality disorder is associated with ________.
- emotional deficits
- memory deficits
- parental overprotection
- increased empathy
Critical Thinking Questions
22. Discuss why thoughts, feelings, or behaviours that are merely atypical or unusual would not necessarily signify the presence of a psychological disorder. Provide an example.
23. Describe the DSM-5. What is it, what kind of information does it contain, and why is it important to the study and treatment of psychological disorders?
24. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the DSM differ in various ways. What are some of the differences in these two classification systems?
25. Why is the perspective one uses in explaining a psychological disorder important?
26. Describe how cognitive theories of the etiology of anxiety disorders differ from learning theories.
27. Discuss the common elements of each of the three disorders covered in this section: obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, and hoarding disorder.
28. List some of the risk factors associated with the development of PTSD following a traumatic event.
29. Why is research following individuals who show prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia so important?
30. The prevalence of most psychological disorders has increased since the 1980s. However, as discussed in this section, scientific publications regarding dissociative amnesia peaked in the mid-1990s but then declined steeply through 2003. In addition, no fictional or nonfictional description of individuals showing dissociative amnesia following a trauma exists prior to 1800. How would you explain this phenomenon?
31. Compare the factors that are important in the development of ADHD with those that are important in the development of autism spectrum disorder.
32. Imagine that a child has a genetic vulnerability to antisocial personality disorder. How might this child’s environment shape the likelihood of developing this personality disorder?
Personal Application Questions
33. Identify a behaviour that is considered unusual or abnormal in your own culture; however, it would be considered normal and expected in another culture.
34. Even today, some believe that certain occurrences have supernatural causes. Think of an event, recent or historical, for which others have provided supernatural explanation.
35. Think of someone you know who seems to have a tendency to make negative, self-defeating explanations for negative life events. How might this tendency lead to future problems? What steps do you think could be taken to change this thinking style?
36. Try to find an example (via a search engine) of a past instance in which a person committed a horrible crime, was apprehended, and later claimed to have dissociative identity disorder during the trial. What was the outcome? Was the person revealed to be faking? If so, how was this determined?
37. Discuss the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder with a few of your friends or members of your family (choose friends or family members who know little about the disorder) and ask them if they think the cause is due to bad parenting or vaccinations. If they indicate that they believe either to be true, why do you think this might be the case? What would be your response?