By the end of this chapter, you should be able to
- Explain how to use movement and voice to increase the effectiveness of your presentation.
At some point in your business career you will be called upon to give a speech. It may be to an audience of one on a sales floor or to a large audience at a national meeting. In this section we’ll examine several strategies for using movement and voice for the greatest effect on your audience.
Customers and audiences respond well to speakers who are comfortable with themselves. Comfortable doesn’t mean overconfident or cocky, and it doesn’t mean shy or timid. It means that an audience is far more likely to forgive the occasional “umm” or “ahh,” or the nonverbal equivalent of a misstep if the speaker is comfortable with themselves and their message.
Would you rather listen to a speaker who moves confidently across the stage or one who hides behind the podium, one who expresses themselves non-verbally with purpose and meaning or one who crosses their arms or turns their back to you?
Audiences are most likely to respond positively to open, dynamic speakers who convey the feeling of being at ease with their bodies. The setting, combined with audience expectations, will give a range of movement. If you are speaking at a formal event, or if you are being filmed, you may be expected to stay in one spot. If the stage allows you to explore, closing the distance between yourself and your audience may prove effective. Consider what your audience expects and what you yourself find most comfortable.
Novice speakers are sometimes told to keep their arms at their sides or to restrict their movements to only those that are necessary. If you are in formal training for a military presentation, or a forensics (speech and debate) competition, this may be true. But in business and industry, expressive gestures, like arm movements while speaking, may be appropriate and, in fact, expected.
Again, what does your audience consider appropriate and what do you feel comfortable doing during your presentation? Since the emphasis is always on meeting the needs of the customer, whether it is an audience of one or a large national gathering, you may need to stretch outside your comfort zone. But don’t stretch too far and move yourself into the uncomfortable range. Find a balance between challenge and comfort.
Movement is an important aspect of your speech and requires planning, the same as the words you choose and the visual aids you design. Be natural, but try not to shuffle your feet, pace back and forth, or rock on your heels through your entire speech. These behaviours distract your audience from your message and can communicate nervousness, undermining your credibility.
Positions on the Stage
In a speech presentation, positions on the stage can guide both the speaker and the audience through transitions. The speaker’s triangle (see Figure 3.12.1) indicates where the speaker starts in the introduction, moves for the first point, moves for the second point, and then returns to the original position to make the third point and conclusion. This movement technique can be quite effective to help you remember each of your main points and reinforce the structure of your speech. Your movement will also demonstrate purpose and reinforce your credibility.
Gestures involve using your arms and hands while communicating. Gestures provide a way to channel your nervous energy into a positive activity that benefits your speech and gives you something to do with your hands. For example, watch people in normal, everyday conversations. They frequently use their hands to express themselves. Do you think they think about how they use their hands? Most people do not. Their arm and hand gestures come naturally as part of their expression, often reflecting what they have learned within their community.
For professional speakers this is also true, but deliberate movement through functional gestures can reinforce, repeat, and even regulate an audience’s response to verbal and nonverbal messages. You want to come across as comfortable and natural, and your use of your arms and hands contributes to your presentation. A well-chosen gesture can help make a point memorable or lead the audience to the next point. Dananjaya Hettiarachchi’s 2.5-minute video offers tips on both body movement and gestures.
(Direct link to 4 essential body language tips by Dananjaya Hettiarachchi)
Facial gestures involve using your face to display feelings and attitudes non-verbally. They may reinforce, or contradict, the spoken word, and their impact cannot be underestimated. As we have discussed, people often focus more on how we say something than what we actually say, and place more importance on our nonverbal gestures (Mehrabian, 1981). As in other body movements, your facial gestures should come naturally, but giving them thought and consideration can keep you aware of how you are communicating the nonverbal message.
Facial gestures should reflect the tone and emotion of your verbal communication. If you are using humour in your speech, you will likely smile to complement the amusement expressed in your words. Smiling will be much less appropriate if your presentation involves a serious subject such as cancer or car accidents. Consider how you want your audience to feel in response to your message, and identify the facial gestures you can use to promote those feelings. Then practice in front of a mirror so that the gestures come naturally.
In Western cultures, eye contact is essential for building a relationship with the audience. Eye contact refers to the speaker’s gaze in engaging the audience members. It can vary in degree and length and, in many cases, is culturally influenced. Both the speaker’s and audience member’s notion of what is appropriate will influence expectations for eye contact. In some cultures, there are understood behavioural expectations for male gaze directed toward females, and vice versa. In a similar way, children may have expectations of when to look their elders in the eye and when to gaze down. Depending on the culture, both may be nonverbal signals of listening. Understanding your audience is critical when it comes to nonverbal expectations.
When giving a presentation, avoid looking over people’s heads, staring at a point on the wall, or letting your eyes dart all over the place. The audience will find these mannerisms unnerving. They will not feel as connected, or receptive, to your message and you will reduce your effectiveness. Move your eyes gradually and naturally across the audience, both close to you and toward the back of the room. Try to look for faces that look interested and engaged in your message. Do not focus on only one or two audience members, as audiences may respond negatively to perceived favouritism. Instead, try to give as much eye contact as possible across the audience. Keep it natural, but give it deliberate thought.
In “Your Speaking Voice”, Toastmasters International (2011) says that “you can develop the sort of voice that wins favourable attention and reflects the qualities you wish to project” (p. 3). According to Toastmasters, you can correct bad speaking habits and develop effective speaking qualities by aiming to develop a voice that is
pleasant, conveying a sense of warmth
natural, reflecting your true personality and sincerity
dynamic, giving the impression of force and strength – even when it isn’t especially loud
expressive, portraying various shades of meaning and never sounding monotonous or without emotion
easily heard, thanks to proper volume and clear articulation
In working to convey a sense of warmth, remember that your goal is to build a relationship with your audience. In most business settings, a conversational tone is appropriate in achieving a connection. Toastmasters’ second goal concerns a natural, genuine personality. Speaking from your core values, as discussed in Chapter 1.3, helps achieve this goal.
A dynamic and expressive voice uses a range of volumes, pace, and inflections to enhance the content of the speech. Toastmasters says that an effective speaker may use as many as 25 different vocal notes: “A one-note speaker is tedious to an audience and promotes inattention and boredom. Vocal variety is the way you use your voice to create interest, excitement, and emotional involvement. It is accomplished by varying your pitch, volume, and timing” (p. 6). A dynamic voice is one that attracts attention and reflects confidence.
Filler words like “um” and “uh” can reduce your dynamism and affect your credibility since you may appear unsure or unfamiliar with your content. In addition to avoiding this filler-word habit, avoid using a “vocal fry“, a low growl at the end of a sentence, or an uplift at the end of a declarative statement. The effects of these habits on your demonstration of authority and conviction are addressed in this 3-minute video by Taylor Mali:
(Direct link to Totally like whatever, you know by Taylor Mali video)
Your volume should make the audience comfortable– not so soft that audiences must strain to hear you or so loud that audiences feel threatened or uneasy. You will need to adjust your volume depending on the size of your audience and the space to ensure that the person farthest away from you can hear. You may also need to eliminate outside noises by closing doors and windows. Be sure that you do not create noises yourself that are distracting. Shoes on tile floors, heavy jewelry, and phones can create distracting noises. If possible, you can also move closer to your audience so that they can hear you more comfortably; this technique also develops trust with your audience.
The following 16-minute video by David JP Phillips effectively pulls together the skills discussed in this chapter. According to Phillips, a communication expert, everyone can be an effective speaker. As he points out in his TED Talk, we refer to presentation skills, not talent, indicating that we all can learn to use techniques that will help us develop a relationship with our audiences and deliver high quality presentations. Some of the skills he demonstrates in this video might be successfully incorporated in your own presentations.
(Direct link to The 110 Techniques of Communication and Public Speaking by David JP Phillips video)
Mehrabian, A. (1981). Silent messages: Implicit communication of emotions and attitudes (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Toastmasters International. (2011). Your speaking voice: Tips for adding strength and authority to your voice. https://toastmasterscdn.azureedge.net/medias/files/department-documents/education-documents/199-your-speaking-voice.pdf