4.3 What Needs To Be Cited

You must cite anything that is not your own intellectual work, whether you are copying someone else’s words directly (quoting), duplicating or adapting a table or figure, or putting information you’ve learned from a source into your own words (summarizing or paraphrasing). It is important to note that citing copied wording properly involves not only indicating the source of the wording, but also placing quotation marks around the copied words.

To determine if something needs to be cited, ask yourself, How do I know this? If the answer is I read it in X or I heard it from Y, a citation is required.

Be sure to cite all information you take from others, no matter what it is or where you got it from, whether it is from a printed source or from the internet, whether it is something you saw on TV or heard on the radio, or whether you got it from a tweet, a blog, a Facebook posting, PowerPoint slides, or even a personal discussion.

An Incomplete List of Sources that Require Citation

Articles

Videos

Apps

Music

Reports

Statistics

Letters

Podcasts

Speeches

Books

Photographs

Websites

Movies

Performances of all kinds

Graphs

Interviews

Radio & TV Programs

Tweets

Art

Emails

Maps

Ebooks

Web Documents

Handouts

Data

Conferences and lectures

Discussions

 

 

 

License

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Academic Integrity Handbook by Donnie Calabrese; Emma Russell; Jasmine Hoover; and Tammy Byrne is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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