5.1 In-Text Citations

What To Include in APA, MLA, and Chicago Style In-Text Citations

In APA style, you should include the following elements in all in-text citations:

  • the author’s last name(s)
  • the year
  • and if you are quoting, also the page number or other locator

In MLA style, you should include the following elements in all in-text citations:

  • the author’s last name(s)
  • the page number (if available)

In Chicago style, what you include in the note depends on the type of source.

 

Placing Citations in MLA, APA, and Chicago Style

Placing citations appropriately distinguishes your ideas from those of others. In all three citation styles, you can place citations in two places:

  • directly after the information from the source
    • APA includes the author and date information in parentheses.

  Example:

  There is also the argument that …..   (Mitchell, 1996).

    • MLA includes the author and page information in parentheses.

   Example:

   There is also the argument that ……  (Mitchell 225).

    • Chicago uses footnotes indicated by a superscript number like this.The footnote contains the complete citation information, while subsequent citations can be shortened.

   Example:

   There is also the argument that …….1

  • within the sentence itself
    • APA

                     Example: Mitchell (1996) argues…

    • MLA

                     Example: Mitchell states …….. (225).

    • Chicago

                     Example: Mitchell suggests ……..1

Have a look at the following paragraphs formatted according to the three different citation styles. The student’s own ideas are in purple; the information from sources is in green, and the citations are in red. The first two citations follow the information from the source, while the third citation includes the author information in an introductory phrase.

 

 

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Academic Integrity Handbook by Donnie Calabrese; Emma Russell; Jasmine Hoover; and Tammy Byrne is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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