Academic Integrity Handbook

Academic Integrity Handbook

A CBU guide

Donnie Calabrese

Emma Russell

Jasmine Hoover

Tammy Byrne

Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Adapted version Cape Breton University

Academic Integrity Handbook

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Academic Integrity Handbook by Donnie Calabrese; Emma Russell; Jasmine Hoover; and Tammy Byrne is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Academic Integrity Handbook is an adaptation of:  Academic Integrity by Ulrike Kestler. The original book, unless otherwise noted, was released under a CC BY NC SA license (Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike).

The new and revised material in this adaptation is copyrighted by the adapting authors at CBU, and is released under a CC BY NC SA license.

Introduction

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Welcome to the Academic Integrity Handbook, an adapted open textbook at CBU.

This webbook was designed to help you learn about academic integrity at CBU — what it means and how to practice it.

How to move around the book:

Use the arrows at the bottom left and right of each page to move forward and backward through the modules. Or, use the contents menu in the top left-hand corner to go to a particular section.

 

 

Chapter 1: Academic Integrity

I

 

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to explain

  • what academic integrity is
  • CBU’s Charter of Academic Citizenship and its five values
  • the benefits of adhering to academic integrity principles

 

1.1 Academic Integrity: An Introduction

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What is academic integrity? In general terms, this phrase describes the act of making ethical choices in your intellectual work. As Dr. Parnaby describes in the video below, you can break down the terms this way:

Academic = intellectual work

Integrity = acting in an honest and truthful manner and taking responsibility for the choices you make

All members of the Cape Breton University community are responsible for understanding and upholding the highest standards of academic integrity. We demonstrate academic integrity by conducting our work with careful attention to the ethics of our courses, programs, disciplines, and higher education as a whole. Academic integrity matters because it is the basis of academic work. Pursuing your studies with integrity ensures that your degree has meaning — in other words, that it accurately reflects your skills, knowledge, and abilities.

In this video, Dr. Andy Parnaby, Dean of the School of Arts and Social Sciences, elaborates on what academic integrity is and why it matters.

 

Thumbnail for the embedded element "Academic Integrity"

A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here: https://caul-cbua.pressbooks.pub/acadintegritycbu/?p=20

 

1.2 CBU's Charter of Academic Citizenship

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CBU’s Charter of Academic Citizenship outlines five values which underpin academic integrity. These values apply to all areas of work at CBU, from how we conduct ourselves in the classroom to how we lead in our work and community.

 

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Ensure that your work is rooted in your own intellectual efforts.
A central purpose of the academic enterprise is to extend our own abilities and broaden our perspectives. No one’s work can be said to be wholly unique or original; however, learning and development requires that individuals create work that originates from their own thoughts and efforts. In this way we do not simply reproduce the work of others; instead we create new understandings, reconceive existing concepts, and challenge long-accepted ideas. These efforts towards discovery lead to the growth and refinement of the collective knowledge of humanity.

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Honestly represent your own work and respect the ideas, knowledge, and work of others.
All legitimate academic work represents honestly and scrupulously, to the best of the scholar’s ability, the results of their study and creativity. Even the most novel scholarship borrows from, is inspired by, and reacts to the work of others. Thus, a core principle of academic life is to fully acknowledge the work of others when it has guided and informed one’s own.

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Expect to be evaluated impartially.
Everyone deserves to be treated equitably, with the expectation that the standards applied to their work and their progress are reasonably consistent across the institution.

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Treat everyone with respect and dignity.
We skeptically and boldly challenge preconceptions and conventional thinking while treating all members of the community with respect. And while university work challenges everyone to do and be their best, the success of one does not preclude the success of another. All can excel.

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Do your part to maintain high standards.
All members of the university community take it upon themselves, to the best of their abilities, to work towards maintaining the highest possible standards of academic citizenship as defined by this charter.

 

Chapter 2: Understanding Academic Misconduct

II

All students, faculty, and staff have a responsibility to familiarize themselves with and abide by CBU’s Academic Integrity Policy.

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to

  • explain what academic integrity breaches are
  • describe assignment misconduct, exam misconduct, and other unethical conduct

 

2.1 What Are Breaches of Academic Integrity?

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Breaches of academic integrity occur when academic work is not done in an ethical way, and go against CBU’s Charter values of originality, integrity, fairness, collegiality, and responsibility. Breaches are avoidable, and this handbook provides resources that students can use to succeed with integrity.

Academic integrity breaches are split into three categories at CBU. These are outlined in our Academic Integrity Policy.

1. Assignment Misconduct

Students breach academic integrity when they deceive readers about the origins or nature of their work. Assignments include any of your work that is assigned in a course, including labs, essays, experiments, reviews, posts,  and more.  Assignment Misconduct is broken down into two categories.

2. Exam Misconduct

Students breach academic integrity when they unfairly represent their knowledge and ability as greater than it is. Exam refers to any examination, test, quiz, or evaluation other than formal written assignments. Whether or not a take-home exam is a written assignment or an exam will be determined by the course instructor and communicated to students. Students commit exam misconduct when they:
• look at the work of another student in an effort to reproduce that student’s answer;
• ask for, or provide, answers to another student, and similar behaviour, during an exam, test, or quiz;
• make use of unapproved notes, references, communications, digital resources, or any other prohibited means of securing answers;
• obtain an unauthorized copy of an exam, text, or quiz in advance for the purpose of preparing answers ahead of time;
• facilitate the exam misconduct of another student.

3. Other Unethical Behaviour

CBU recognizes the existence of, and potential for, a range of other unethical behaviour. Other unethical behaviour is itself divided further into two categories. The university retains the right to evaluate other unethical behaviours not specifically mentioned here and assess appropriate consequences. If appropriate, some offenses may also be considered under Cape Breton University’s “Code of Conduct for Non-Academic Infractions.”

 

 

2.2 Levels of Academic Integrity Breaches

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While all instances of academic misconduct undermine academic integrity, CBU recognizes that academic integrity breaches may differ in seriousness, and that multiple breaches are more serious than a single transgression. Breaches of academic integrity are categorized into three levels of seriousness at CBU, each with their own procedure and consequences.

Level 1

Level 1 breaches of academic integrity result from negligence serious enough to create the impression of deception or misrepresentation.

Breaches at this level

• include assignment misconduct and exam misconduct;
• are addressed by the course instructor in consultation with faculty colleagues and/or department chairs, where appropriate;
• are not reported to the Dean;
• shall result in a grade penalty and/or additional work proportionate to the breach committed, but not a “0” on the assignment, exam, or in the course;
• must be resolved so that the student is provided with additional instruction on integrity matters.

 

Level 2

Level 2 breaches show an evident intent to mislead but are limited in scope and premeditation.

Breaches at this level

• include assignment misconduct, exam misconduct, and other unethical behaviours;
• are addressed by the course instructor in consultation with faculty colleagues, department chairs, and/or Dean, where appropriate;
• must be reported to the Dean for inclusion in the student’s academic record;
• will result in a significant grade penalty proportionate to the breach to a maximum of “0” on the assignment or exam but not in the course, and a formal letter from the Dean;
• must be resolved so that student is provided with additional instruction on integrity matters.

 

Level 3

Level 3 breaches demonstrate a flagrant and premeditated transgression of expressed rules and procedures related to academic integrity.

Breaches at this level

• include assignment misconduct, exam misconduct, and other unethical behaviours;
• are addressed by the course instructor in consultation with faculty colleagues, department chairs, and/or Dean, where appropriate;
• must be reported to the Dean for inclusion in the student’s academic record;
• will result in a grade penalty of “0” on the assignment or exam, to a maximum of “0” in the course, and a formal letter from the Dean.

Discontinuation

Any student found to breach academic integrity on three separate occasions at Level 2 and/or Level 3 of seriousness will be discontinued from the university for a period of 12 months.

The student will not be permitted to register in any CBU courses, for credit, for 12 months as of the date of discontinuance, nor will CBU accept transfer credits from other institutions if they have been earned during that period. The notation for the discontinuation will appear on the transcript for the duration of the discontinuation.

The Academic Integrity Policy also outlines policy exceptions, students’ right to appeal decisions, and details related to record keeping and the privacy of student records.

2.3 Chapter 2 Recap

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 Key Takeaways

Academic misconduct

  • is avoidable
  • violates academic integrity
  • includes assignment misconduct, exam misconduct, and other unethical behaviours
  • is classified into three levels of seriousness at CBU, which have different associated procedures

 

 

Chapter 3: Writing Skills

III

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should understand

  • how to quote, paraphrase, and summarize properly
  • the importance of careful note-taking strategies

 

3.1 Quoting

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Quoting means replicating part of a source word for word in your assignment.

How many quotations can I use in an assignment?

The number of quotations expected varies in different disciplines and types of assignments. For example, in an English literature paper, direct quotations from a novel or play are often used as the basis for a discussion, while in a business proposal, direct quotations are rare, or not accepted at all.

Quotations are often the material evidence you’ll use to support claims. The substance of your assignment, however, is the thorough and detailed discussion, explanation, or analysis of the quotations. Make sure that you’ve not introduced more material than you can explain — your reader should understand why the quotations appear.

Quotations should be used purposefully because otherwise quoting can sometimes give the impression that you don’t understand a source enough to put it in your own words and that you may not have any thoughts on the topic. If you aren’t sure whether you should use direct quotations in a specific assignment, ask your instructor.

Some Good Reasons to Quote

  • To present something you are analyzing, interpreting, or commenting on so the reader will understand better what you are referring to (such as a literary passage)
  • If the original language is especially moving, descriptive, or historically significant
  • For unique terms or a passage that cannot be paraphrased or summarized adequately without losing or changing the meaning

Source: (The Writing Center, n.d.)

3.2 How To Quote

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Quotations can be included at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a sentence. However, it is a good practice to introduce quotations with some sort of statement that signals to the reader that the wording ahead is from a source, such as in the two examples shown below. ​

Examples in APA Style

Short Quotations (defined in APA Style as quotations of fewer than 40 words) are always enclosed in quotation marks, so the reader knows that these are the EXACT words from the source. Not putting quotation marks around a short quotation is considered plagiarism even if a citation is included, because the absence of quotation marks signals to your reader that the words are your own.

Example: 

One researcher indicates that “the most difficult thing for them was the attitude of their parents” (Crook, 2003, p. 157), while others believe…​

Long Quotations (defined in APA Style as quotations of 40 words or more) are not placed in quotation marks but are instead formatted in a block indented from the remaining text.

Example:

A family’s assessment has a powerful influence on how capable teenagers believe they are. In her study, Crook (2003) found

their expectations became self-fulfilling prophecies; because their families thought they couldn’t do anything, they didn’t think they could either. After all, if the people who knew them best and presumably loved them most thought they were losers, then the family was probably right. (p. 37)​

Can I make changes to a quotation? 

You may omit words from a quotation, but you must indicate that you did so by inserting three spaced dots called an ellipsis. If you change a quotation, for example to make it fit your sentence structure, you must use square brackets to do so.

In the example below, we omitted a part of the quotation, and we indicated this by adding three dots. We also added the word “and” which is put in square brackets because it is not part of the original sentence.

In her study, Crook (2003) found that if teenagers felt that “their families thought they couldn’t do anything, they didn’t think they could either . . . [and] the family was probably right” (p. 37).​

3.3 Paraphrasing and Summarizing

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Paraphrasing means rewriting someone else’s idea in your own words (i.e., using different vocabulary and sentence structure than the original source) without changing the original meaning.

A good paraphrase demonstrates mastery of a topic, which is an important part of most assignments. Paraphrasing also allows you to maintain a consistent voice throughout your assignment and make better use of the material by expressing an idea more persuasively than in the original source or by emphasizing a word or idea that is more important to your work and more resonant with your reader.

Similar to paraphrasing, summarizing also involves restating a text or passage in your own words. However, a summary only restates the main points of a text, and therefore is usually much shorter than the original.

You would paraphrase when you want to explain a concept in detail, while you would summarize to convey the highlights of a longer source in a short space.

3.4 How to Paraphrase

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Try using this four-step method for effective paraphrase writing:

Step 1: Read the original text in its context, until you understand it fully.

Trying to paraphrase information out of context can lead to misunderstanding and therefore misrepresenting the information. Before trying to paraphrase something, read the passage in context and ask questions like:

Once you have answered these questions, you will be prepared to identify the specific pieces of information that are relevant to your paper, and that you may want to paraphrase. Identify any words from the original that are essential terminology and cannot or should not be changed. Check your understanding of any unfamiliar words and concepts in a dictionary.

Example original text: 
Why did the baby boom happen? A likely explanation is that during those 20 years, Canadians knew they could afford large families. The postwar economy was robust, the future seemed full of promise, and young couples wanted to share that bright future with a big family. A second reason was the high immigration levels that prevailed during the 1950s.​ (Foot & Stoffman, 1996)

Step 2: Without looking at the original text, write a first draft of the paraphrase. 

First draft: The authors theorize that the baby boom likely happened for two main reasons: the postwar economy was healthy and full of promise and young couples who wanted a big family knew they would be able to afford it, and high immigration levels prevailed during the 1950s.

Step 3: Compare your paraphrase to the original passage to ensure it accurately conveys the ideas in your own words

Ask yourself:

Original Paraphrase – first draft

This paraphrase accurately captures the meaning of the original but contains language that is the same as or too similar to the original (see yellow highlighted language), so it does not constitute a successful paraphrase.

Why did the baby boom happen? A likely explanation is that during those 20 years, Canadians knew they could afford large families. The postwar economy was robust, the future seemed full of promise, and young couples wanted to share that bright future with a big family. A second reason was the high immigration levels that prevailed during the 1950s.​ (Foot & Stoffman, 1996) The authors theorize that the baby boom likely happened for two main reasons: the postwar economy was healthy and full of promise and young couples who wanted a big family knew they would be able to afford it, and high immigration levels prevailed during the 1950s.

Step 4: Revise the paraphrase if necessary. Integrate it into your assignment, making sure it is properly cited.

Original Paraphrase – first draft

Accurately captures the meaning of the original, but contains language that is the same as or too similar to the original, so does not constitute a successful paraphrase

Paraphrase — final draft

Very strong! This paraphrase accurately captures the meaning of the original in different wording.

Why did the baby boom happen? A likely explanation is that during those 20 years, Canadians knew they could afford large families. The postwar economy was robust, the future seemed full of promise, and young couples wanted to share that bright future with a big family. A second reason was the high immigration levels that prevailed during the 1950s.​ (Foot & Stoffman, 1996) Foot and Stoffman (1996) theorize that the baby boom likely happened for two main reasons: the postwar economy was healthy and full of promise and young couples who wanted a big family knew they would be able to afford it, and high immigration levels prevailed during the 1950s. Foot and Stoffman (1996) theorize that there were two main reasons behind the baby boom: a healthy economy that made young Canadians feel optimistic and gave them the confidence that they would have the means to support the large family they desired, and immigration that remained consistently high.​

3.5 How To Summarize

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The process for writing a summary is similar to that for writing a paraphrase, except summary writing involves leaving out most of the details of the original and highlighting only the key points.

Try using this four-step method for effective summary writing:

Step 1: Read the original text until you understand it fully and separate the most important points from the supporting details.

Ask questions like:

Identify any words from the original that are essential terminology and cannot or should not be changed. Check your understanding of any unfamiliar words and concepts in a dictionary.

Example original text: 
Why did the baby boom happen? A likely explanation is that during those 20 years, Canadians knew they could afford large families. The postwar economy was robust, the future seemed full of promise, and young couples wanted to share that bright future with a big family. A second reason was the high immigration levels that prevailed during the 1950s.​ (Foot & Stoffman, 1996)

Step 2: Without looking at the original text, write a first draft of the summary. 

First draft: According to the authors, the baby boom was due to the postwar economy being robust, which made young couples confident they could afford lots of children, and high immigration levels which prevailed during the 1950s.

Step 3: Compare your summary to the original to ensure it accurately conveys the main ideas in your own words

Ask yourself:

Original Summary — first draft

This summary accurately captures the meaning of the original text but contains supporting details unnecessary for the writer’s purpose and language that is the same as or too similar to the original (see yellow highlighted language), so it does not constitute a successful summary.

Why did the baby boom happen? A likely explanation is that during those 20 years, Canadians knew they could afford large families. The postwar economy was robust, the future seemed full of promise, and young couples wanted to share that bright future with a big family. A second reason was the high immigration levels that prevailed during the 1950s.​ (Foot & Stoffman, 1996) According to the authors, the baby boom was due to the postwar economy being robust, making young Canadian couples confident they could afford lots of children, and high immigration levels which prevailed during the 1950s.

Step 4: Revise the summary if necessary. Integrate it into your assignment, making sure it is properly cited.

Original Summary — first draft

Accurately captures the meaning of the original, but contains language that is the same as or too similar to the original, so does not constitute a successful summary

Summary — final draft

Very strong! This summary accurately captures the most important points in the original in fewer and different words.

Why did the baby boom happen? A likely explanation is that during those 20 years, Canadians knew they could afford large families. The postwar economy was robust, the future seemed full of promise, and young couples wanted to share that bright future with a big family. A second reason was the high immigration levels that prevailed during the 1950s.​ (Foot & Stoffman, 1996) According to the authors, the baby boom was due to the postwar economy being robust, making young Canadian couples confident they could afford lots of children, and high immigration levels which prevailed during the 1950s. According to Foot and Stoffman (1996), the baby boom was due to healthy economic conditions and steady high immigration.​

3.6 Note-Taking

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As you read your sources, you should have a strategy for taking notes that works for you, as it is very easy to cut and paste information, lose track of the sources you used, or mix the information from the sources with your own ideas. Taking good notes and keeping track of which information came from sources ensures you have a clear idea of which ideas are yours and which ideas, information, or words are from a source. This helps you avoid accidentally presenting the work of others as your own in your assignment.

 

3.7 How To Take Notes

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Two Methods for Taking Notes

1. Quote information and then add your own ideas 

When you want to use your researched information to support your point of view, you then decide whether you want to use a direct quote, a paraphrase, or a summary of the original. Having the originals in front of you will allow you to double-check that you are quoting accurately and that you are paraphrasing properly.

Example: 

Source Information Exact Text  My Thoughts
  • Foot & Stoffman
  • 1996
  • Boom, bust & echo: How to profit from the coming demographic shift
Why did the baby boom happen? A likely explanation is that during those 20 years, Canadians knew they could afford large families. The postwar economy was robust, the future seemed full of promise, and young couples wanted to share that bright future with a big family. A second reason was the high immigration levels that prevailed during the 1950s (p. 20). Agree with healthy economy and high immigration being factors, but how about people being less material? Check Easterlin’s “relative income” theory!

 

2. Paraphrase or summarize information and then add your own ideas

Source Information Paraphrase  My Thoughts
  • Foot & Stoffman
  • 1996
  • Boom, bust & echo: How to profit from the coming demographic shift
Foot and Stoffman (1996) theorize that there were two main reasons behind the baby boom: a healthy economy that made young Canadians feel optimistic and gave them the confidence that they would have the means to support the large family they desired, and immigration that remained consistently high.​ Agree with healthy economy and high immigration being factors, but how about people being less material? Check Easterlin’s “relative income” theory!

Source: Adapted from McMaster University (2009). Three column note taking.  http://www.mcmaster.ca/academicintegrity/students/typeofad/plagiarism/3ColmNote.html

If you like to read digital files, you may want to take notes with OneNote (free for CBU students with Office 365).

  • Paste the file you are reading into the notebook.
  • Make notes of key information, paraphrases, and analysis alongside the digital file.

 

3.8 Chapter 3 Recap

13

 

Key Takeaways

Quotations
  • are the exact words from a source
  • are put in quotation marks (or block format if longer)
  • are used as material evidence to support your claims; to help the reader better understand what you are referring to; when the original language is especially moving, descriptive, or historically significant; and to accurately convey the meaning of unique terms or a passage that cannot be paraphrased or summarized adequately
Paraphrases
  • are restatements in your own words that maintain the meaning of the original passage
  • are approximately the same level of detail as the original
  • are used to demonstrate your mastery of the material, maintain a consistent voice, and express an idea more persuasively than in the original source

Summaries

  • are restatements in your own words that highlight the main points of a source
  • are much shorter than the original
  • are used to demonstrate your mastery of the material and convey the highlights of a longer text
Avoid plagiarism by
  • placing quotations in quotation marks
  • ensuring paraphrases or summaries are written in your own words and not too similar to the original
  • citing the sources of quotations, paraphrases, or summaries

When taking notes

  • write down the citation information for all the sources you consult
  • distinguish between what you took from the sources and what are your own thoughts

 

Chapter 4: Citation Skills

IV

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should understand

  • what citations are and why they are important
  • what information needs to be cited
  • the proper placement of citations

4.1 What Is a Citation?

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A citation is a reference to a source of information you’ve used for your assignment. It gives key information about the source so the reader can evaluate its credibility and even locate it if they would like to double-check the information or read the source fully.

There are various citation styles (e.g., APA Style, MLA Style, Chicago Style), each with different requirements for what information to include in a citation and how that information should be formatted. These requirements are set through each citation style’s most recent style guide.

 

4.2 Why We Cite

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Although in some cultures it is a sign of respect to use the words or ideas of others without giving credit to them, this is not permitted in Canadian higher education, where a core principle of academic life is to fully acknowledge the work of others when it has guided and informed your own.

Academics engage in conversations to advance their knowledge and understanding of a subject. This happens mostly in written form through the publication of scholarly materials. In these academic conversations, it is necessary and expected that all prior thought is acknowledged and that all contributors to the conversation are credited. As a student, you too are a contributor to these conversations, and you therefore must credit all the sources from which you drew information.

Why Do We Cite?

The main reasons we cite are:

  • to uphold academic integrity standards by giving credit to those whose work we’ve used
  • to situate our work in the current literature and distinguish prior contributions from new original thought
  • to enable a reader to locate and read the source(s) we’ve used
  • to show that we have investigated our topics well
  • to add credibility and support to our arguments

4.3 What Needs To Be Cited

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You must cite anything that is not your own intellectual work, whether you are copying someone else’s words directly (quoting), duplicating or adapting a table or figure, or putting information you’ve learned from a source into your own words (summarizing or paraphrasing). It is important to note that citing copied wording properly involves not only indicating the source of the wording, but also placing quotation marks around the copied words.

To determine if something needs to be cited, ask yourself, How do I know this? If the answer is I read it in X or I heard it from Y, a citation is required.

Be sure to cite all information you take from others, no matter what it is or where you got it from, whether it is from a printed source or from the internet, whether it is something you saw on TV or heard on the radio, or whether you got it from a tweet, a blog, a Facebook posting, PowerPoint slides, or even a personal discussion.

An Incomplete List of Sources that Require Citation

Articles

Videos

Apps

Music

Reports

Statistics

Letters

Podcasts

Speeches

Books

Photographs

Websites

Movies

Performances of all kinds

Graphs

Interviews

Radio & TV Programs

Tweets

Art

Emails

Maps

Ebooks

Web Documents

Handouts

Data

Conferences and lectures

Discussions

 

 

 

4.4 What Doesn't Need To Be Cited

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There is one exception to this rule: you may need to acknowledge your own work if you are reusing it in another course or assignment (however, make sure you receive the express permission of your instructor to do this, first). This is because academic work is expected to be new in order to earn new academic credit.

4.5 Common Knowledge

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There is only one exception to the rule about citing all information learned from others, and that is when that information is considered common knowledge.

General Common Knowledge

General common knowledge is information that most people know.

  • Examples: capital cities, important historical dates and persons, basic mathematics, common sense observations

This information does not need to be cited. However, it is always best to cite something if you aren’t sure if it is common knowledge or not.

Besides general common knowledge, there is also information that is so well known within a field of study that it is considered common knowledge WITHIN this particular field (discipline-specific common knowledge), though it would not be considered common knowledge outside of this field.

Discipline-Specific Common Knowledge

Discipline-specific common knowledge is:

  • Information that is well known only within a specific field of study
  • NOT considered common knowledge outside of the specific discipline

Determining discipline-specific common knowledge can sometimes be tricky, so when in doubt, cite!

Citing too much is much less of a concern than not citing enough, because when you over-cite, you have not misrepresented where the material has come from. If you are unsure if something is common knowledge, it is better to cite it than not.

 

4.6 Where To Cite: Two Places

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You must cite information learned from sources in TWO places:

    1. In the body of your assignment each time you

These citations are placed at the sentence level and tell the reader how you know the information in the sentence (e.g., you read it in X or you heard it from Y).

These are called in-text citations.

                           AND

2.  In a list of sources at the end of your assignment, called

These are called bibliographic citations.

These two citations work together: the brief in-text citation allows you to identify exactly which material in the body of the assignment comes from which source. It is short, so it does not clutter up the body of your assignment, but it leads your reader easily to the complete bibliographic citation in the end list of sources for more detailed information about the source.

See Chapter 5 of this handbook for more details on in-text and bibliographic citations.

4.7 Understanding Plagiarism Due to Improper Citation

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One kind of academic integrity breach — plagiarism — can be due to a lack of understanding about how to properly use and cite sources.

To cite properly, you must know where to provide citations and when quotation marks are required.

Citations

You must cite material as soon as it is used in your assignment — for instance, you cannot wait until the end of a paragraph or page to cite. In other words, the answer to the question “How do I know this?” must be very clear at each point that information from a source is conveyed. This means that when you’re writing a research-heavy assignment or summarizing from a source at length, you may need to cite a source in all (or nearly all) of the sentences in a paragraph.

If there is no citation and the information in a sentence is not common knowledge, the reader must assume that the source of the material is you — that it is your thoughts/analysis/etc. This is why not providing a citation for information learned from a source is considered plagiarism: you have signaled to the reader incorrectly that the material originated from you instead of the source.

If you cite a source only in the end list of sources, then you have not cited it fully and correctly, as you have not indicated where in the body of your assignment the information from that source has been used.

In addition to a citation, quotation marks are required when you are citing someone else’s words. (See section 3.2 of this handbook for information on the exception to this rule: long quotations.)

Quotation Marks

When you copy the wording of a source, that is a direct quotation of the source, and so the words must be enclosed in quotation marks.

Whenever there is a citation but no quotation marks, the writer is telling the reader that the information in that sentence came from the source but that the writer put that information into their own words. So, copying the words of a source but not putting quotation marks around them is a form of plagiarism, as the writer is taking credit for the wording, when the wording is someone else’s.

4.8 Chapter 4 Recap

21

Key Takeaways

  • A core principle of academic life is to fully acknowledge the work of others when it has guided and informed your own, so you must properly credit all the sources from which you draw information.
  • A citation is a reference to a source of information you’ve used in your assignment that gives key information about the source so the reader can evaluate its credibility and locate it.
  • You must cite anything that is not your own intellectual work, whether you are copying someone else’s words directly (quoting), duplicating or adapting a table or figure, or putting information you’ve learned from a source into your own words (summarizing or paraphrasing).
  • You don’t need to cite your own thoughts, ideas, data, or creations or common knowledge.
  • You must cite information learned from sources in TWO places: in the body of your assignment (in in-text citations) and in a list of sources at the end of your assignment (in bibliographic citations).
  • One kind of academic integrity breach — plagiarism — can be due to a lack of understanding about how to properly use and cite sources.
  • Avoid plagiarism by
    • citing material as soon as it is used in your assignment
    • enclosing copied words in quotation marks 
    • including both in-text citations and a list of sources

Chapter 5: Citation Styles (APA, MLA, & Chicago)

V

You will need to use a particular citation style and apply it consistently throughout your assignments. Sometimes, your instructor will tell you which style to use, while other times you will get to choose. If you are unsure which style you should use for an assignment, ask your instructor.

image APA STYLE is typically used in the sciences and social sciences (e.g., psychology, sociology, nursing).
image MLA STYLE is used in many of the humanities (e.g., English, drama).
CHICAGO STYLE is usually the preferred style for history, music, and folklore.

 

Each style has its own rules about how to cite specific sources and format assignments. See section 5.3 of this handbook for links to online resources on each citation style.

5.1 In-Text Citations

22

What To Include in APA, MLA, and Chicago Style In-Text Citations

In APA style, you should include the following elements in all in-text citations:

  • the author’s last name(s)
  • the year
  • and if you are quoting, also the page number or other locator

In MLA style, you should include the following elements in all in-text citations:

  • the author’s last name(s)
  • the page number (if available)

In Chicago style, what you include in the note depends on the type of source.

 

Placing Citations in MLA, APA, and Chicago Style

Placing citations appropriately distinguishes your ideas from those of others. In all three citation styles, you can place citations in two places:

  • directly after the information from the source
    • APA includes the author and date information in parentheses.

  Example:

  There is also the argument that …..   (Mitchell, 1996).

    • MLA includes the author and page information in parentheses.

   Example:

   There is also the argument that ……  (Mitchell 225).

    • Chicago uses footnotes indicated by a superscript number like this.The footnote contains the complete citation information, while subsequent citations can be shortened.

   Example:

   There is also the argument that …….1

  • within the sentence itself
    • APA

                     Example: Mitchell (1996) argues…

    • MLA

                     Example: Mitchell states ……..(225).

    • Chicago

                     Example: Mitchell suggests ……..1

Have a look at the following paragraphs formatted according to the three different citation styles. The student’s own ideas are in purple; the information from sources is in green, and the citations are in red. The first two citations follow the information from the source, while the third citation includes the author information in an introductory phrase.

 

An interactive H5P element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:
https://caul-cbua.pressbooks.pub/acadintegritycbu/?p=125#h5p-19

 

5.2 Bibliographic Citations

23

The in-text citations in your assignment generally must contain a corresponding entry in your reference list, works cited list or bibliography. They are organized alphabetically. The information to include and how to format it depends on the type of source and the style you are using. The next page provides links to detailed guides with information on how to format the bibliographic citations for different types of sources.

The examples below show the corresponding bibliographic citations for the three example in-text citations in 5.1 formatted in the three different citation styles. The first entry is for a book, the second for an online article and the third for a book chapter.

1. APA Style: In-text citations (author and date) and corresponding References entry

 

2. MLA Style: In-text citations (author and page) and corresponding Works Cited entry

3. Chicago Style: Footnotes (superscript number with full citation information in the footnote) and corresponding Bibliography entry

Source: (Li, 2010, p. 11)

5.3 Citation Styles: Resources

24

APA Style

The CBU Writing Centre’s APA citation guide

MLA Style

The CBU Writing Centre’s MLA citation guide

Chicago Style

The CBU Writing Centre’s Chicago citation guide

The CBU Library has the official manuals for each style as well as links to additional resources. You can find more information here.

5.4 Chapter 5 Recap

25

Key Takeaways

  • There are different citation styles that can be used to properly give credit to sources. These include common elements like the author, the date of the work, and the page number.
  • These styles include both in text citations and bibliographic citations.
  • Links to citation guides and additional information about each style can be found on the resources page of this chapter and at the Writing Centre and Library.

 

Chapter 6: CBU Academic Integrity Policy

VI

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should

  • be familiar with CBU’s Academic Integrity Policy
  • understand students’ responsibilities regarding academic integrity, outlined in the policy
  • understand the levels of breaches and the procedures and consequences associated with each level

 

6.1 CBU's Academic Integrity Policy

26

Academic Integrity Policy

1. Policy purpose

The objective of this policy is to promote academic integrity and the values associated with it at Cape Breton University. This document establishes a process to address student conduct that breaches the values of academic integrity. The policy outlines the roles of faculty, staff, students, and others in upholding the values of academic integrity and participating in the process to address student misconduct.

2. Policy scope

The policy addresses all forms of academic activity undertaken by students as part of their courses and programs.

3. Related policies and procedures

Charter of Academic Citizenship (expanded version)
“Appeals of Academic Decisions”
“Exam Policy”
“Code of Conduct for Non-Academic Infractions”
“Confidentiality and Privacy of Student Records”

3.1 Privacy of Student Records

All student information that is collected, assessed, shared, and/or reported as part of Cape Breton University’s academic integrity policy is subject to the requirements of its “Confidentiality and Privacy of Student Records” policy.

4. Promoting a culture of academic integrity

It is the responsibility of all members of the Cape Breton University community to understand and uphold the highest standards of academic integrity. We demonstrate academic integrity by conducting our work with careful attention to the ethics of our courses, programs, disciplines, and higher education as a whole. The university’s “Charter of Academic Citizenship” explains these ethical commitments and the associated values. The policy also identifies the roles and responsibilities of all members of the Cape Breton University community in the area of academic integrity and the processes, penalties, and rights in place for students who breach academic integrity.

5. Responsibilities

5.1 University

The University is responsible for:
• promoting academic integrity as a foundational value through policy, administration, and resources;
• ensuring that the “Academic Integrity” policy is communicated clearly and is easily accessible;
• supporting the creation of educational resources to assist faculty, staff, and students;
• collecting data on student academic integrity violations for reporting, disciplinary, educational, and policy purposes;
• providing a process through which students may appeal decisions related to academic integrity.

5.2 Students

Students are responsible for:
• reading, understanding, and acting in accordance with the “Academic Integrity” policy;
• reviewing course materials and seeking direction from appropriate faculty and staff to ensure an understanding of the expectations for academic integrity;
• engaging in learning opportunities dedicated to academic integrity within and/or outside of classes;
• submitting work created in line with the highest standards of academic integrity;
• appealing decisions related to academic integrity matters through the proper channels.

5.3 Faculty members

Faculty members are responsible for:
• educating themselves on the “Academic Integrity” policy and following the policy consistently and equitably;
• educating students on accepted practices for using knowledge and sources, and the reasons for those practices;
• clearly communicating expectations for the ethical completion of all course assignments, tests, and examinations to students;
• making ethical use of any tools for the discovery of academic misconduct;
• determining the appropriate response to breaches of academic integrity in consultation, where appropriate, with colleagues, department chairs, and/or Deans.

5.4 Department Chairs

Department Chairs are responsible for:
• educating themselves on the “Academic Integrity” policy and following the policy consistently and equitably;
• providing collegial guidance for faculty in their department on matters related to academic integrity and the seriousness of academic integrity breaches;
• assisting students with navigating the “Academic Integrity” policy, when appropriate.

5.5 Deans

Deans are responsible for:
• educating themselves on the “Academic Integrity” policy and following the policy consistently and equitably;
• consulting with faculty members and department chairs on academic integrity breaches;
• determining the level and penalty for breaches consistent with section 6;
• communicating with the Registrar’s Office and students about academic integrity breaches.

5.6 Appeals Committee of Senate

The Appeals Committee of Senate is responsible for:
• receiving student letters of appeal, gathering any required evidence, and reaching final decisions about the validity of findings of and/or penalties assigned for academic integrity breaches.

6. Academic integrity breaches

Cape Breton University recognizes three main types of academic integrity breaches: assignment misconduct, exam misconduct, and other unethical behaviours. Each type of academic integrity breach is defined and explained below. The university retains the right to evaluate other forms of academic integrity breaches not specifically mentioned in this policy and assess appropriate consequences.

6.1 Assignment misconduct

Students breach academic integrity when they seek to deceive readers about the truthful origins or nature of their work. Assignment misconduct at Cape Breton University is itself divided into two further categories:

6.1.1 Plagiarism

Students plagiarize when they represent the work of others as their own, including words, ideas, information, data, computer code, images, and all other intellectual or creative material. In specific terms, students plagiarize when they submit work that:
• appears to be original work when it is, in whole, or in part, drawn from other sources without full and clear acknowledgement;
• is copied from other students;
• was purchased from, or generated by, a third party or service;
• has been previously submitted and graded, in whole or in part, in another course.

6.1.2 Fabrication and Falsification

It is a violation of academic integrity to invent data, sources, quotations, or other material with the aim of presenting that material as genuine research or experimental results.
Fabrication is not a violation in assignments where invention is specifically called for, as in the creation of art works, hypothetical scenarios and the like.
Data of any kind, including quotations, may not be altered so as to be misleading in its use as evidence and results.

6.2 Exam misconduct

Students breach academic integrity when they unfairly represent their knowledge and ability as greater than it is. For the purposes of this policy, exam refers to any examination, test, quiz, or evaluation other than formal written assignments. Whether or not a take-home exam is a written assignment or an exam will be determined by the course instructor and communicated to students. Students commit exam misconduct when they:
• look at the work of another student in an effort to reproduce that student’s answer;
• ask for, or provide, answers to another student, and similar behaviour, during an exam, test, or quiz;
• make use of unapproved notes, references, communications, digital resources, or any other prohibited means of securing answers;
• obtain an unauthorized copy of an exam, text, or quiz in advance for the purpose of preparing answers ahead of time;
• facilitate the exam misconduct of another student.

6.3 Other unethical behaviour

CBU recognizes the existence of, and potential for, a range of other unethical behaviour. Other unethical behaviour is itself divided further into two categories. The university retains the right to evaluate other unethical behaviours not specifically mentioned here and assess appropriate consequences. If appropriate, some offenses may also be considered under Cape Breton University’s “Code of Conduct for Non-Academic Infractions.”

6.3.1 Offenses against other students

Students breach academic integrity when they intentionally impede the ability of other students to conduct their academic work.
Students may not deface, destroy or otherwise compromise the academic products of other students.
Students may not unduly interfere with other students’ ability to access course materials, resources, or equipment or access other students’ course work without the knowledge or consent of the student.

6.3.2 Offenses against the university

Students breach academic integrity when they intentionally compromise the valid and legitimate functions of academic supports and services.
Students may not fabricate credentials, nor may they make unauthorized alterations to academic documents or records.

7. Seriousness of academic integrity breaches

While all instances of academic misconduct undermine academic integrity, CBU recognizes that some transgressions may vary in level of seriousness and that a pattern of misconduct is more serious than a single transgression. The level of seriousness of a breach of academic integrity is determined by evidence of intentionality and pre-meditation. Breaches of academic integrity are therefore categorized into three levels. Assessments of exam misconduct must be conducted in a manner that is consistent with the university’s “Exam Policy”

7.1 Level 1

Level 1 breaches of academic integrity result from negligence serious enough to create the impression of deception or misrepresentation.
Breaches at this level:
• include assignment misconduct and exam misconduct;
• are addressed by the course instructor in consultation with faculty colleagues and/or department chairs, where appropriate;
• are not reported to the Dean;
• shall result in a grade penalty and/or additional work proportionate to the breach committed, but not a “0” on the assignment, exam, or in the course;
• must be resolved so that the student is provided with additional instruction on integrity matters.

7.2 Level 2

Level 2 breaches show an evident intent to mislead but are limited in scope and premeditation. Breaches at this level:
• include assignment misconduct, exam misconduct, and other unethical behaviours;
• are addressed by the course instructor in consultation with faculty colleagues, department chairs, and/or Dean, where appropriate;
• must be reported to the Dean for inclusion in the student’s academic record;
• will result in a significant grade penalty proportionate to the breach to a maximum of “0” on the assignment or exam but not in the course, and a formal letter from the Dean;
• must be resolved so that student is provided with additional instruction on integrity matters.

7.3 Level 3

Level 3 breaches demonstrate a flagrant and premeditated transgression of expressed rules and procedures related to academic integrity.
Breaches at this level:
• include assignment misconduct, exam misconduct, and other unethical behaviours;
• are addressed by the course instructor in consultation with faculty colleagues, department chairs, and/or Dean, where appropriate;
• must be reported to the Dean for inclusion in the student’s academic record;
• will result in a grade penalty of “0” on the assignment or exam, to a maximum of “0” in the course, and a formal letter from the Dean.

7.4 Discontinuation

Any student found to breach academic integrity on three separate occasions at Level 2 and/or Level 3 of seriousness will be discontinued from the university for a period of 12 months.
The student will not be permitted to register in any CBU courses, for credit, for 12 months as of the date of discontinuance, nor will CBU accept transfer credits from other institutions if they have been earned during that period. The notation for the discontinuation will appear on the transcript for the duration of the discontinuation.

8. Exceptions

Notwithstanding these guidelines, the Dean may exercise, in rare cases and on a one-time basis, discretion in cases where the first Level 2 or Level 3 transgression occurred during the student’s first year of study at CBU.
In the interest of fairness and consistency only, the Dean may, after consultation with the department chair, modify a penalty assigned to a student as part of a Level 2 and Level 3 breach of academic integrity.

Furthermore, the Dean may resolve an extraordinary and flagrant breach of academic integrity by setting aside the requirement for three breaches and discontinue a student immediately. This action must be approved by the Vice-President Academic and Provost.
Any actions taken by the Dean under this article must be documented for inclusion in the students’ confidential academic file.

9. Appeals

Consistent with the university’s “Appeals of Academic Decisions” policy, students have the right to appeal decisions made under sections 6, 7, and 8 of the “Academic Integrity” policy.

10. Record Keeping and Reporting

Academic integrity breaches at Level 2 and Level 3 of seriousness will be reported by the Dean to the Registrar’s Office for inclusion in the student’s confidential academic record.
The Registrar’s Office will provide the Vice-President Academic and Provost with a summary of academic integrity breaches on an annual basis.

6.2 Chapter 6 Recap

27

Key Takeaways

The objective of this policy is to promote academic integrity and the values associated with it at Cape Breton University.

Your responsibilities as a student:

  • reading, understanding, and acting in accordance with the Academic Integrity Policy
  • reviewing course materials and seeking direction from faculty and staff to ensure an understanding of the expectations for academic integrity
  • engaging in learning opportunities dedicated to academic integrity within or outside of classes
  • submitting work created in line with the highest standards of academic integrity
  • appealing decisions related to academic integrity matters through the proper channels

Cape Breton University recognizes three main types of academic integrity breaches: assignment misconduct, exam misconduct, and other unethical behaviour.

Breaches of academic integrity are categorized into three levels, each having their own penalties and resolutions.

 

 

 

Chapter 7: Where to Go for Help

VII

Learning Objectives

In this chapter, you’ll find information on and links to a number of services available to CBU students.*

  • CBU Writing Centre
  • CBU Library
  • Academic Success Coaching
  • Math & Science Centre
  • Jennifer Keeping Centre

*Remember: Faculty members are always a reliable and accessible source of help and information.

7.1 CBU Writing Centre

28

The CBU Writing Centre is a free service offered to

Book an appointment at the Writing Centre

7.2 CBU Library

29

The CBU Library is an essential academic service. There, students can find

Ask a reference question or book an appointment with a librarian

7.3 Academic Success Coaching

30

CBU’s Academic Success Coaches help students

Make an appointment with an academic success coach.

7.4 Math & Science Centre

31

The Math & Science Centre offers free tutoring services for current CBU students who require help in introductory-level math, science and business courses.

Help is available Monday through Thursday from 9am – 8pm, and Friday from 9am – 5pm. 

Students can access tutors on campus and online during these hours.

7.5 Jennifer Keeping Centre

32

At Cape Breton University, we believe that each and every student should receive the same high-quality education. If you’re a student with a disability, you’ll find all the services you need to get the most out of your classes at the Jennifer Keeping Centre.

At the Jennifer Keeping Centre, you’ll find a variety of accommodations based on your disability.

To receive accommodations from the Jennifer Keeping Centre, students must register each semester. Please make an appointment by calling 902-563-1208 or emailing jkc@cbu.ca.

Am I eligible?

If you have a medically documented disability, you could be eligible for services related to your disability. Eligible disabilities include:

Please note: you must provide documentation from a qualified health practitioner to receive these services. Please see the Student Responsibilities page for more information.

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Crook, M. (2003). Out of the darkness: Teens and suicide. Arsenal Pulp Press.

Denchuk, A. (n.d.) Processing the language of the paraphrase [Workshop materials]. University of Manitoba. 

Foot, D. K., & Stoffman, D. (1996). Boom, bust & echo: How to profit from the coming demographic shift. Macfarlane.

Howard, R. M. (1993). A plagiarism pentimento. Journal of Teaching Writing, 11(3),  233-46.

How Opal Mehta got kissed, got wild, and got a life. (2020, August 15). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/How_Opal_Mehta_Got_Kissed,_Got_Wild,_and_Got_a_Life

International Center for Academic Integrity. (2013). The fundamental values of academic integrity (2nd ed.). https://www.academicintegrity.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Fundamental-Values-2014.pdf

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Lanegran, K. (2004, July 2). Fending off a plagiarist. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 50(43), C1. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012182522/http://chronicle.com/free/v50/i43/43c00101.htm

Li, P. (2010). Germany’s failed multiculturalism: Can the Canadian model provide a solution? [Unpublished essay]. Department of Political Science, POLI 4125: The politics of multiculturalism in Canada, Kwantlen Polytechnic University.

McMaster University. (2009). Three column note taking.  http://www.mcmaster.ca/academicintegrity/students/typeofad/plagiarism/3ColmNote.html

Merriam Webster. (n.d.). Plagiarizing. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved August 11, 2020 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plagiarizing

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Stern, L. ( 2007). What every student should know about avoiding plagiarism. Pearson.

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Acknowledgments

Special thanks to Ulrike Kestler and KPU for creating the original Academic Integrity book with an open copyright license, which allows other universities such as CBU to modify it and allow our students to learn with it as well.